A growing body of literature on the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review of currently available clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and chest imaging data related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted using the clinical and laboratory data, and random-effects models were applied to estimate pooled results.
A total of 61 studies were included 59, patients. Laboratory findings were described in a lower number of patients and revealed lymphopenia 0. Radiological findings varied, but mostly described ground-glass opacities and consolidation.
Data on treatment options were limited. All-cause mortality was 0. Epidemiological studies showed that mortality was higher in males and elderly patients.
Clinical suspicion, accompanied by a relevant epidemiological history, should be followed by early imaging and virological assay. Abstract A growing body of literature on the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted.
Publication types Review.Qui troverete un elenco di poeti, veneziani e non, che hanno espresso i loro versi i Da la pansa la mare mete al mondo, sigando, fioi a morir destinai. E scoverzer la maranta che ghe fa zirar la testa: oh, se soto la me capita ghe la fazzo ben la festa, onge longhe e man sicura… De quei cai no go paura. E qua in casa xelo un anzolo? Grafico U.
Bortoli, Sempre contenta e ilare sia la to bianca fronte: le cativerie sconte staga lontan da ti! Che quel viseto belo rida pur sempre a mi! Passava na dona, vendendo i cazzioi, un vecio chiozoto co bei garagoi, na siora co la sporta de azze e botoni, un omo co un sesto de dolsi e bomboni.
Sti veci mestieri de antica memoria Venezia i ga scriti sui libri de storia. El mondo de ancuo no pol scanselar quelo che i noni ne ga volesto lassar.
Largo al consumo, largo al paneton! El Bambin? I se intorcola fra le cotole i fa bossolo co ela sgnagolando co la coa drita. Ma la dona no se ferma se no la riva al so canton e la puza zo par tera un scartosso pien de pesse. Furegando drento e fora la scominzia a far le parte: un pagan al surianeto, un bel go al mascarin, un sardon a quel moreto e le anguele a le gatine. Gastu fato le lession?
Qua i comandava tuti! Tuto gera per el merito; tuto gera per la fama: i aspirava a farse credito: gera questa la so brama. Citadini, e Regatanti in ste forme passionai, se pol creder che zelanti lori fusse e infervorai. Un quadro stupendo che fa incantar. Par veri e merleti la xe famosa. Sposi noveli la invita festosa. La xe galante, romantica, cordial.
In strada se pol lesar el zornal. No se incontra sordanti veicoli, solo bici spente dai picoli.
Fa rumor solo le serenade o copie de gati inamorade. No, siori, no la xe na facessia: chi no me crede vegna a Venessia!Ideally, the design of high-performance micro-hotplates would require a large number of simulations because of the existence of many important design parameters as well as the possibly crucial effects of both spread and drift.
However, the computational cost of FEM simulations, which are the only available tool for accurately predicting the temperature in micro-hotplates, is very high.
As a result, micro-hotplate designers generally have no effective simulation-tools for the optimization. In order to circumvent these issues, here, we propose a model for practical circular-symmetric micro-hot-plates which takes advantage of modified Bessel functions, computationally efficient matrix-approach for considering the relevant boundary conditions, Taylor linearization for modeling the Joule heating and radiation losses, and external-region-segmentation strategy in order to accurately take into account radiation losses in the entire micro-hotplate.
The proposed model is almost as accurate as FEM simulations and two to three orders of magnitude more computationally efficient e. The residual errors, which are mainly associated to the undesired heating in the electrical contacts, are small e. As illustrative examples of the power of our approach, we report the systematic investigation of a spread in the membrane thermal conductivity and of combined variations of both ambient and bulk temperatures.
Our model enables a much faster characterization of micro-hotplates and, thus, a much more effective optimization prior to fabrication. Micro-hotplates comprise an integrated resistive heater within a thin membrane [ 1 ]. The membrane is thermally isolated from the substrate by bulk etching in order to achieve a low power consumption [ 2 ] and to ensure safety to other devices e.
As to the applications, micro-hotplates are widely utilized in gas sensors [ 8 — 10 ], infrared emitters [ 1112 ] and micro-reactors [ 713 ]. Nevertheless, the available simulation tools for micro-hotplates are not yet satisfactory. In fact, when designing a certain device, it is generally necessary to carefully take into account both spread i. For instance, electronic circuits must always be designed by taking into account the so called PVT variations i. By contrast, at present, a similar approach is practically impossible for micro-hotplates.
Though both the operating temperature and the uniformity of the temperature profile within the heater region are crucial [ 1415 ], the computational cost of FEM simulations currently the only available tool allowing an accurate simulation of micro-hotplates is very high. For this reason, a systematic and effective analysis of micro-hotplates is still an open challenge and, generally, it is impossible to accurately investigate the effects of all the many important variables, which include:.
As an alternative to FEM simulations, analytical models could be employed. Though several efforts have been carried out to model the thermal behavior in membrane-type micro-hotplates [ 16 — 23 ], the available models are clearly insufficient. For example, Kozlov [ 1617 ] modeled the temperature distribution in micro-hotplates using the Fourier method. However, in [ 16 ], the radiation heat transfer was linearized by assuming a small temperature difference between the micro-hotplate and the environment, which is generally not the case for micro-hotplates.
In order to circumvent this concern, in [ 17 ], Kozlov, for each region of interest, considered a modified environmental temperature defined as the mean of the typical environmental temperature and the average region temperature; however, obviously, in the heater-regions of typical micro-hotplates the difference between the average region temperature and the modified environmental temperature is still large. Moreover, the heater geometries in [ 1617 ] are also hypothetical.
Volklein et al. Li et al. Jain et al. Graf et al. Recently, we have shown [ 23 ] that, for an hypothetic membrane-type micro-hot-plate with perfectly circular geometry e. Subsequently, we have introduced simple strategies for designing practical i. However, the modified Bessel functions expression for the temperature developed in [ 23 ] has two major shortcomings.
Firstly, it does not consider the internal heat generation within the heater regions; in fact, accurately modelling the internal heat generation is not straightforward as it would require taking into account the resistivity of the heaters and its temperature dependence. Secondly, the radiation heat transfer is approximated by means of the Taylor first-order polynomial centered at the average temperature of the region of interest and, therefore, the predicted temperature is only accurate if there are no large temperature differences within the region of interest.
Since the temperature external to the heater region can be very different from its average temperature, the approximation of the radiation losses would not be accurate in the external region. We stress that neglecting the radiation outside the heater would have resulted in a constant error of the temperature distribution in the heater region which can be, e. In order to overcome these shortcomings, here, we first develop a general expression for the temperature distribution in terms of modified Bessel functions which also takes into account the Joule heating within the micro-heater, where the temperature dependence is linearized using the Taylor first order polynomial.
Afterwards, we introduce an external-region-segmentation approach which divides the external region into many small concentric annular regions with small maximum temperature differences, so that the temperature dependence of the radiation heat flow can be accurately linearized within each annular region; as a result, the radiation heat transfer can be taken into account in the entire device.
GABA Modulating Agents: A Brief Review
Clearly, the annular regions must be more dense and small in the proximity of the heater region, where high temperature gradients exist, and less dense close to the substrate. However, as a consequence of the external-region-segmentation, the micro-hotplate comprises a large number of annular regions and, therefore, a large number of unknown coefficients of modified Bessel functions to be determined in order to find the specific expression for the temperature in each annular region.The blue skies and temperate weather offer endless opportunities to enjoy the outdoors.
Whether it be a local lake, the Sound or an alpine meadow, Seattleites are out soaking it up. As a company founded in Santa Cruz, CA, Verve knows summer and their line-up of drinks are not to miss.
Thanks so much to the entire crew at Verve who worked with our team to bring this residence to life! Special thanks to Mac Atkinson for his hours planning with us and providing all the details needed, Jacob Grosdidier for being here to train our team in the Verve way, and to Naida Lindberg and Jessica Groza for jumping in to help launch the residence, plan and host events.
Italian barista champion Francesco Sanapo opened his original Ditta Artigianale in After representing Italy in the World Barista Championship, Francesco felt a desire to start an innovative path in Italy — one that reflected Italian traditions while also embracing a more contemporary style of coffee and coffee roasting. As a cafe owner and roaster in Florence, Italy, he has been successfully honoring traditional Italian cafe culture while also contributing to the global specialty coffee conversation.
Francesco travels to coffee producing countries in search of the most exclusive and ethical coffees, creating direct contact with each individual producer and forming relationships with them based on trust and mutual respect.
Francesco will be here to host an afternoon launch event on Tuesday, August At PM, Francesco will have more coffee to sample, with a demonstration on how a Moka Pot works and how to make the best Moka Pot at home.
This event is free and open to all. Head here to let us know you can come! For a residence that is designed to highlight both traditional and contemporary coffee culture, Ditta Artigianale has chosen to have the La Marzocco Leva on bar — an espresso machine created with traditional ideologies of the iconic lever machine design with the advantages of modern espresso technology.
Their creative solution to separate the lever motion with a clutch was so interesting, La Marzocco felt that they needed to build the machine. Ditta has created an ambitious menu for their residence — a mix of classic Italian-style espresso, coffee drinks inspired from around the world, historic Italian drinks, refreshing summer favorites and even a Moka Pot bar!
It is their hope that everyone will find something they enjoy on the menu, but if not, and we have the ingredients to make something off menu, we will! Single Shot Espresso, classic Italian style — this is it, how espresso is served in the country that gave us espresso.
All the coffees present in the blend are from exceptional female producers whom Francesco has met and worked with during his travels to origin. Bicerin — this historic Italian beverage made with chocolate sauce, espresso and steamed milk dates back to when drink-maker Giuseppe Dentis opened a small shop in the town square of Torino.
It has evolved in construct over time, but due to its popularity, the Bicerin has become one of the symbols of the city. The coffee in this lot comes from about 20 small farmers in the Mukurweini district of Kenya and boasts flavors of blueberry, honey and maple syrup. CoffeeMisu — a Ditta Signature, this is a delightful play on Tiramisu made with a layer of sweet mascarpone and cream topped with a shot of espresso and finished with a dusting of cocoa.
Novel Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19) in Humans: A Scoping Review and Meta-Analysis
A double shot of espresso is slightly sweetened with simple syrup then shaken vigorously with ice until frothy. The Cold Brew Tonic adds tonic water, and a touch of orange and rosemary for an unexpected and delicious combination. The Leva For a residence that is designed to highlight both traditional and contemporary coffee culture, Ditta Artigianale has chosen to have the La Marzocco Leva on bar — an espresso machine created with traditional ideologies of the iconic lever machine design with the advantages of modern espresso technology.
Epilepsy Behav71 pt b06 Aug Cited by 6 articles PMID: To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation. Gen Pharmacol27 701 Oct Cited by 2 articles PMID: Pharmacol Biochem Behav58 101 Sep Cited by 4 articles PMID: Bioorg Med Chem4 1201 Dec Cited by 8 articles PMID: Gardner CR.
Prog Neurobiol31 601 Jan Cited by 30 articles PMID: File SE. Neurosci Biobehav Rev9 101 Jan Cited by 70 articles PMID: Coronavirus: Find the latest articles and preprints.Tutorial - COME FARE I FIOCCHI CON LE DITA
In India, studies have reported the prevalence rate of epilepsy varying from to cases per million populations.
Despite the optimal use of available antiepileptic drugs AEDsmany patients with epilepsy fail to experience seizure control and others do so only at the expense of significant toxic side effects.
The limitations with the conventional AEDs highlighted the need for developing newer agents for epilepsies and the AED search has come a long way, particularly over the last two decades. This review describes new anticonvulsant agents representing various structures for which the precise mechanism of action is still not known. New anticonvulsant drugs increase the spectrum of treatment and represent further steps with regard to the optimization of an individual therapy of the epilepsies.
Here we are providing the review of novel GABA modulating agents, which seem to be effective when evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity. Epilepsy is not a disease, but a syndrome of different cerebral disorders of the Central Nervous System CNSwhich is characterized by paroxysmal, excessive and hypersynchronous discharges of large numbers of neurons. Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological disorders characterized by recurrent seizures. It results from a temporary electrical disturbance of the brain due to an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters.
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by the periodic and unpredictable occurrence of seizures that affects the people of all ages. There are five broad categories of epileptic seizures, the subtypes and their characteristics are summarized in Table 1.
Every year about 2. The classification of antiepileptic agents along with the examples and their mechanism of action are presented in Table 2. Much efforts devoted in the recent years for the development of novel therapeutics resulted in the availability of several newer drugs such as pregabalin, stiripentol, zonisamide, tiagabine, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, topiramate as promising anticonvulsants.
These drugs have proven to be effective in reducing seizure, whilst their therapeutic efficacy is overcome by some undesirable side effects such as headache, nausea, hepatotoxicity, anorexia, ataxia, drowsiness, gastrointestinal disturbances and hirsutism. These observations affirm the further scope and need for the development of newer agents Amnerkar and Bhusari, Its presence in brain tissue together with its biosynthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase GAD was described simultaneously in three independent publications in Awapara et al.
One of the first indications that GABA could play an important role in brain function came from studies with the convulsant hydrazides which inhibit its synthesis Killam, and the demonstration by Bazemore et al.
Further elegant electrophysiological studies soon confirmed that GABA was indeed an important inhibitory neurotransmitter Curtis et al. The peripheral administration of GABA can not be usefully performed since this neurotransmitter is able to cross the Blood Brain Barrier BBB only when extremely high doses are applied, which produce severe adverse side effects Toth et al.
Mechanism of action: BararWilson et al. Mechanism of action of anticonvulsant agents can be divided in three main categories as shown in Fig. The higher the frequency of the firing the greater is the block.
Falconi Irina - profil
These antiepileptic drugs the duration of inactivated phase and delay its reversion to the resting phase. This reduces their chances of becoming available for activation again. Examples of drugs are Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, Lamotrigine, Lidocaine etc. It is well documented that attenuation of GABAergic neurotransmission is involved in pathophysiology of several CNS disorders in humans namely anxiety, pain, epilepsy, depression and mania Bell and Sander, Inhibition of T-type calcium current: Ethosuximide is a major drug used for the treatment of absence seizures.
Examples of other drugs are Valproate, Zonisamide etc. Trapani et al. In particular, their ability to modulate the specific binding of [H]-GABA to washed membrane preparations from the rat cerebral cortex, as well as their effects on human recombinant GABA receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes, were assessed.
Bolvig et al.Chronic pain, as a stress state, is one of the critical factors for determining depression, and their coexistence tends to further aggravate the severity of both disorders.
Unfortunately, their association remains unclear, which creates a bottleneck problem for managing chronic pain-induced depression. In recent years, studies have found considerable overlaps between pain- and depression-induced neuroplasticity changes and neurobiological mechanism changes.
Such overlaps are vital to facilitating the occurrence and development of chronic pain and chronic pain-induced depression. In this review, we summarized the role of neuroplasticity in the occurrence and development of the two disorders in question and explored individualized application strategies of analgesic drugs and antidepressants that have different pharmacological effects in the treatment of chronic pain-induced depression.
Therefore, this review may provide new insights into the understanding of association between chronic pain and depression. Chronic pain is usually defined as any persistent or intermittent pain that lasts more than 3 months, which can be categorized along a variety of dimensions, including one of the most important divisions, neuropathic versus nociceptive pain [ 12 ]. Neuropathic pain is induced by a lesion or disease involving the nervous system [ 3 ], and nociceptive pain occurs as a consequence of actual or threatened damage to nonneural tissue [ 4 ].
Chronic pain is a major public health problem, with epidemiological studies reporting that in the USA and Europe, approximately one fifth of the general population are affected [ 5 ]. Additionally, as one of the most common and disabling mental disorders, depression has been reported to be the third leading contributor to the global disease burden [ 67 ].
Patients suffering from chronic pain-induced depression exhibit a poorer prognosis than those with chronic pain only; and chronic pain and depression are closely correlated in terms of occurrence and development and are able to mutually promote their own severity progress [ 13 ].
To date, neither the corresponding pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic pain and depression nor their mutual correlation has been identified, which poses a huge challenge for the treatment of pain accompanied by depression. However, in recent years, studies have revealed considerable overlaps between pain- and depression-induced neuroplasticity changes and neurobiological mechanism changes.
Such overlaps are vital to facilitating the occurrence and development of chronic pain-induced depression. In particular, injury sensory pathways of body pains have been shown to share the same brain regions involved in mood management, including the insular cortex, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala, which form a histological structural foundation for the coexistence of pain and depression [ 14 ].
Furthermore, the volumes of the prefrontal cortex PFC and hippocampus have been reported in many studies to be significantly smaller in depressed patients and to be closely related to depression severity [ 15 — 17 ]. In addition, individuals with depression in postmortem studies have also been observed to have a significantly reduced number of PFC synapses, which thus decreases synaptic functions [ 18 ].
Meanwhile, the effect of PFC on pain development via the nucleus accumbens has also been verified [ 19 ], thus indicating that the occurrence and development of pain and depression may be associated with some identical neuroplasticity changes. Furthermore, maladaptive plasticity changes, which refer to the plasticity in the nervous system that leads to a disruption of the function and may be considered a disease state, have also been indicated in a large number of clinical trials and animal studies [ 20 ].
Additionally, these maladaptive plasticity changes may also occur in sensory conduction pathways from the peripheral to the central nervous system and participate in the occurrence, development, and maintenance of chronic pain [ 3 ]. In summary, chronic pain and depression may be based on common neuroplasticity mechanism changes, which are a potentially important route for the onset and aggravation of chronic pain and depression. Reviewing the role of neuroplasticity in chronic pain and depression, this paper explores the influence of analgesic drugs and antidepressants with different pharmacological effects on neuroplasticity as well as their contribution to individualized application strategies in the treatment of chronic pain-induced depression.
Monoamine neurotransmitters, including serotonin 5-HTdopamine DAand norepinephrine NEhave been studied in molecular mechanisms involved in chronic pain and depression. The classical monoamine hypothesis proposes that depression may occur as a result of decreased availability of monoamine neurotransmitters such as 5-HT and NE in the central nervous system CNS [ 21 ], which is supported by strong evidence from many studies [ 22 — 24 ].
Monoamine neurotransmitters are also vital to the occurrence and development of pain. Additionally, electrical stimulation either in the periaqueductal gray or in the rostral ventrolateral medulla may elevate NE levels in cerebrospinal fluid and thus achieve an analgesic effect, which in turn can be blocked by spinal adrenergic antagonists [ 25 ].
In exploring the common neuroplasticity changes of chronic pain and depression, attention should also be paid to the midbrain dopaminergic system because it exerts an indispensable role in the control of forebrain functions.
In fact, chronic pain has been shown to have the potential to significantly damage DA activity in the limbic midbrain area according to a large body of evidence [ 26 ]. The reactivity of the DA system in the limbic midbrain area to significant stimuli has been observed in imaging studies to be reduced in patients with chronic pain [ 2728 ]. In particular, the DA receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that is known to be involved in the occurrence and development of depression [ 29 ].
BDNF belongs to the family of neurotrophic factors and is not only involved in the signaling pathways of the PFC and hippocampal dentate gyrus together with its receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B TrkB but is also important in regulating neuroplasticity [ 3233 ]. Aside from decreasing BDNF expression and function in the PFC, the hippocampus, and other depression-related structures, depression has been found to reduce the blood BDNF levels in affected patients [ 34 — 36 ].